In 1957, Arkansas governor Orval E. Faubus used the National Guard to prevent some African American teenagers from attending a high school populated by white students.
Bassist Charles Mingus had some lyrics for this jazz tune, but the record label, Columbia, only permitted an instrumental version. At least, according to some reports and Wikipedia. It could also be the case that the lyrics came later.
All the same, the song toots and sings against racism and for the integration of schools, which jived with Supreme Court rulings at the time.
With the words:
Related: John Coltrane, Alabama